evaluate the expression. 4! • 3! 12 30 144 5,040

Evaluate The Expression. 4! • 3! 12 30 144 5,040

This article delves into evaluating the expression 4! ⋅ 3!, equipping you with a comprehensive understanding of factorials and the simplification process. We’ll explore the concept of factorials, delve into their properties, and demonstrate a step-by-step approach to solving the expression.

Demystifying Factorials: A Mathematical Tool for Permutations

In mathematics, the factorial function, denoted by n!, represents the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n. Factorials play a crucial role in various branches of mathematics, including combinatorics, probability theory, and calculus.

Here’s the formal definition of a factorial:

  • For any non-negative integer n, n! is defined as:

n! = 1 × 2 × 3 × … × (n – 1) × n

Key Points to Remember About Factorials:

  • 0! is a special case: By convention, 0! is defined as 1. This is because an empty product (no numbers to multiply) results in 1.
  • Factorials and Permutations: Factorials are often used in counting problems involving permutations. A permutation is an arrangement of objects in a specific order. The number of permutations of n distinct objects is precisely n!.

Step-by-Step Evaluation of 4! ⋅ 3!

Now, let’s tackle evaluating the expression 4! ⋅ 3!. Here’s a breakdown of the process:

  1. Evaluate 4!:

    • 4! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4
    • 4! = 24
  2. Evaluate 3!:

    • 3! = 1 × 2 × 3
    • 3! = 6
  3. Multiplication:

    • Finally, we multiply the results obtained in steps 1 and 2:
    • 4! ⋅ 3! = 24 × 6

Unveiling the Answer: 5,040

Following the steps outlined above, we arrive at the answer:

4! ⋅ 3! = 5,040


  • We first evaluated each factorial individually (4! and 3!).
  • Subsequently, we multiplied the obtained factorial values (24 and 6).

Applications of Factorials in Everyday Life

Factorials, although seemingly abstract, have practical applications in various aspects of our lives. Here are a few examples:

  • Counting Arrangements: Factorials are instrumental in counting the number of ways to arrange objects in a specific order. Imagine organizing books on a shelf – the number of unique arrangements for n books is n!.
  • Probability Problems: Factorials come into play when calculating probabilities involving order. For instance, the probability of winning a lottery where order matters (specific sequence of numbers) can be determined using factorials.
  • Cryptography: Factorials hold significance in certain cryptographic algorithms that rely on the difficulty of calculating large factorials.

Beyond the Basics: Exploring Advanced Properties of Factorials

While this article focused on evaluating a basic expression involving factorials, the concept extends to more intricate applications. Here’s a glimpse into some advanced properties of factorials:

  • Double Factorial: The double factorial, denoted by n!!, is defined for non-negative even integers. It’s the product of all consecutive even numbers less than or equal to n.
  • Stirling Numbers: These numbers relate to permutations with restrictions, such as cycles or objects of the same type. Factorials play a role in defining and calculating Stirling numbers.
  • Gamma Function: The gamma function (Γ(n)) extends the concept of factorials to non-integer values. It has numerous applications in advanced mathematics, including calculus and complex analysis.

Conclusion: Factorials – A Powerful Mathematical Tool

By understanding factorials and their properties, we unlock a powerful mathematical tool with diverse applications. From counting arrangements to exploring probability and cryptography, factorials offer a unique lens through which to analyze and solve problems.

This article provided a comprehensive explanation for evaluating the expression 4! ⋅ 3!. We delved into the concept of factorials, explored their applications, and briefly mentioned some advanced properties.

Should you wish to delve deeper into the fascinating world of factorials and their applications, feel free to explore further mathematical resources!

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